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经济论文

市场化与腐败类型的地区差异——基于职务犯罪起诉书数据的多层分析

时间:2020年03月23日 所属分类:经济论文 点击次数:

幸运飞艇app【ZHAIYAO】SHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIZHIJIANDEGUANXISHIFUBAIYANJIULINGYUZHONGYIGEZHENGLUNBUXIUDEHUATI。TONGGUODUIZHONGGUOZHIWUFANZUIQISUSHUDESHUJUFENXI,YANJIUFAXIAN:SHICHANGHUACHENGDUHUIXIANZHUYINGXIANGDIQUZHIJIANZAIFUBAILEIXINGSHANGDECHAYI,CHUYUSHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEHUANJINGXIA,GUANYUANJUANRUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILVGAOYUZITIXINGFUBAI。YINCI,SHICHANG

  【ZHAIYAO】SHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIZHIJIANDEGUANXISHIFUBAIYANJIULINGYUZHONGYIGEZHENGLUNBUXIUDEHUATI。TONGGUODUIZHONGGUOZHIWUFANZUIQISUSHUDESHUJUFENXI,YANJIUFAXIAN:SHICHANGHUACHENGDUHUIXIANZHUYINGXIANGDIQUZHIJIANZAIFUBAILEIXINGSHANGDECHAYI,CHUYUSHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEHUANJINGXIA,GUANYUANJUANRUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILVGAOYUZITIXINGFUBAI。YINCI,SHICHANGHUABUSHIJIANDANDIZENGJIAHUOZHEJIANSHAOLEFUBAIDEZONGLIANG,ERSHITONGGUOGAIBIANFUBAILEIXINGDEJIEGOUHUATEZHENGLAIYINGXIANGFUBAIDE。CIWAI,YANJIUHAIANSHI,ZHONGGUOYOUYUDIQUJIANJINGJIXINGTAIDECHAYI,DAOZHIFUBAIDEJIEGOUXINGCHAYI,BUTONGDIQUYAOZHENDUIBUTONGDEFUBAIXINGTAIZHIDINGGEXINGHUAHECHAYIHUADEFANFUBAICELVE,YOUDEFANGSHI,YIBIANGENGYOUXIAODIDAJIFUBAI。

  【GUANJIANCI】FUBAILEIXING ZHIWUFANZUI SHICHANGHUA QISUSHU

市场经济

  市场营销方向论文范文:市场经济背景下我国工商管理的发展策略研究

  ZHAIYAO:SHICHANGJINGJICHIXUSHENRUFAZHANDETONGSHIYEZAIQUYUFUZADUOBIAN,YUCITONGSHIQIYEGUANLIFANGMIANSHOUDAODETIAOZHANYEZHUJIANZENGDUO,WEILEYOUXIAOTIGAOGUANLINENGLI,GONGSHANGGUANLIZHUJIANSHOUDAOQIYEGAOCENGDEZHONGSHI。GONGSHANGGUANLIDUIQIYEGUANLISHUIPINGYOUZHEZHIJIEYINGXIANG,DANSHIJIEHEXIANJIEDUANQIYEFAZHANGAIKUANGKEYIRENSHIDAO,DUOSHUQIYEMEIYOUXINGCHENGWANBEIDEGONGSHANGGUANLIFAZHANCELVE。

  YI、YINYAN

  ZAIFUBAIYANJIULINGYUZHONG,YIZHIYOUYIGEZAILILUNSHANGZHENGLUNBUXIUDEHUATI——SHICHANGHUADUIYUFUBAILAISHUODAODISHIYIJI“JIEYAO”HAISHI“DUYAO”?DUIZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDAFENLIEWEIJIERANDUILIDELIANGPAIGUANDIAN:CHIJIEYAOSHUODEGUANDIANRENWEI,SHICHANGHUABENZHISHANGSHIYIGEZHENGFUXIANGSHICHANGFANGQUANDEGUOCHENG,CHONGFENDESHICHANGJINGZHENGJIANGDILEZHENGFUDUIGONGGONGZIYUANDELONGDUANCHENGDU,TONGSHIYEYASUOLEGUANYUANLIYONGGONGGONGQUANLIMOUQUSILIDEKONGJIAN,CONGERJIANGDILEFUBAI(Ades & Di Tella,1997;Goldsmith,1999;Broadman & Recanatini,2001)。LINGWAIYIXIEXUEZHEZECHIXIANGFANDEGUANDIAN,TAMENRENWEIZHENGSHISHICHANGHUAGAIGEJIASULEFUBAIDEMANYAN。YINWEIZAISHICHANGZHUANXINGGUOJIA,YUJIHUAJINGJISHIQIXIANGBI,JINGJIDEZIYOUHUABINGBUYIWEIZHEZHENGFUXIANGSHICHANGDEQUANMIANFANGQUAN,CHUANTONGDEZHENGZHIJINGYINGLIYONGQUANLIGANYUSHICHANGDENENGLIYIRANHENQIANG。SHICHANGHUAGAIGEBUJINMEIYOUXUERUOGUANYUANDEXUNZUNENGLI,FANERRANGGUANYUANYOUGENGDUODEJIHUICONGSHICHANGSHANGMOUQUSILI,TONGGUOLVEDUOSHICHANGLAIZHONGBAOSINANG(Walder,2003;YIYAERDENG,2008)。

幸运飞艇app   ZHONGGUOZUOWEICHUYUSHICHANGHUAZHUANXINGZHONGDEGUOJIAZHIYI,YEMIANLINZHESHIFENYANJUNDEFANFUBAIRENWU,DANGDESHIBADAYILAIZHONGYANGJIAQIANGFANFUBAIDOUZHENG,QUDELEJIJICHENGGUO。YIXIEYINGWENWENXIANRENWEISHICHANGHUAGAIGEZENGJIALEZHONGGUODEFUBAIWENTI(White,1996;Sun,1999,2004;Hao & Johnston,2007;Guo,2008),WOMENRENWEIZHEIZHONGKANFASHIXIANGDANGPIANMIANYUJIANDANHUADE,YINERSHICUOWUDE。ZAIBENWENZHONG,WOMENJIANGZAIYIWANGYANJIUDEJICHUSHANG,CHANGSHIJINYIBUTANTAOSHICHANGHUADUIFUBAILEIXINGDEDIQUCHAYIDEYINGXIANG。FUBAIBAOKUOGEZHONGGEYANGDELEIXING,QIZHONGYIGEJIBENDEFENLEIJIUSHIJIAOYIXINGFUBAI(YIHUILUWEIZHUYAOXINGSHI)HEZITIFUBAI(YITANWUWEIZHUYAOXINGSHI)。WOMENTUICE:SHICHANGHUAXIANZHUTIGAOLEGUANYUANJUANRUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILV,YINCIZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQUHUIXINGCHENGGAOJIAOYIXINGFUBAI——DIZITIFUBAIDEJIEGOU;ZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUDIDEDIQUZEXIANGFAN,XINGCHENGGAOZITIFUBAI——DIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEJIEGOU。YINCI,SHICHANGHUADUIFUBAIDEYINGXIANGFANGSHIYINGGAIBUSHIZENGJIAHUOZHEJIANSHAOZONGTIFUBAI,ERSHIGAIBIANLEZHONGGUOFUBAIDEJIEGOU,BAGENGDUODEFUBAIYINXIANGLEJIAOYIXINGFUBAI。

  WEILEYANZHENGSHANGSHUCAICE,WOMENCONG2015KAISHICHIXUZHUAQULEZUIGAORENMINJIANCHAYUANGUANFANGWANGZHANGONGKAIFABUDEGUANYUZHIWUFANZUIDEQISUSHUWENBEN,CONG138WANDUOFENQISUSHUZHONGQINGLICHUTANWUHUILULEIZHIWUFANZUIXIANGGUANDEQISUSHUWENBEN,BINGLIYONGZHEIYIWENBENSHUJUGOUJIANLEYIGEQUANXINDESHUJUKU。JIYUZHEIYISHUJUDEFENXI,WOMENFAXIAN,XIANGDUIYUZITIFUBAILAISHUO,TANGUANSUOZAIDIQUDESHICHANGHUACHENGDUYUEGAOYUEKENENGTISHENGJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILV。

幸运飞艇app   JIEXIALAI,WOMENJIANGSHOUXIANCONGLILUNSHANGTANTAOSHICHANGHUADUIFUBAIDEYINGXIANG,ZHONGXINTAOLUNSHICHANGHUAYUFUBAILEIXINGERZHEZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ZAICIJICHUSHANGTICHUBENWENDEHEXINJIASHE。ZAIDISANBUFEN,WOMENJIANGJIESHAORUHESHOUJIQISUSHUWENBENBINGJIANGQISHUJUHUA,JIESHAOBENWENDEHEXINZIBIANLIANGHEYINBIANLIANGDEBIANMAFANGSHI,BINGZUOJIANDANDEMIAOSHUFENXI。DISIBUFEN,YOUYUWOMENDESHUJUBAOHANLEGETIHESHENGJILIANGGECENGMIANDESHUJU,QIEYINBIANLIANGWEIERFENDINGLEIBIANLIANG,YINCISHIYONGLEDUOCENGCILUOJISIDIHUIGUI(Multilevel Logistic Regression)DUIQIANMIANDEHEXINJIASHEJINXINGLEYANZHENG,BINGFUDAITAOLUNLEQITAKONGZHIBIANLIANGDEYINGXIANG。ZUIHOUSHIJIELUNHEJINYIBUDETAOLUN。

  ER、ZITIFUBAIYUJIAOYIXINGFUBAI:FUBAIDELIANGFUMIANKONG

幸运飞艇app   FUBAIYIBANBEIDINGYIWEILIYONGGONGGONGQUANLIMOUQUSILI,DANZHEIGEDINGYIFEICHANGKUANFAN,HANGAILEGEZHONGGEYANGDEFUBAILEIXING,QIZHONGYIGEJIBENDEFENLEIJIUSHI“JIAOYIXINGFUBAI”(Transaction-Type Corruption)HE“ZITIFUBAI”(Auto-Corruption)。BIRUYUESEFU·NAI(Joseph S.Nye)(Nye,1967: 418)JIANGFUBAIDINGYIWEI:“FUBAISHIYINKAOLVJINQIANHUODIWEISHANGDEHAOCHUERPIANLIGONGGONGJIAOSEGUIFANZHIZEDEXINGWEI;HUOZHEWEIBEIMOUXIEGUIZEERYIQUANMOUSIDEXINGWEI。ZHEIXIEXINGWEIBAOKUOHUILU、QUNDAIGUANXIHEBUZHENGDANGDEZHANYOU。”HUILUHEBUZHENGDANGDEZHANYOUYIBANBEIRENWEISHIDIANXINGDELIANGZHONGFUBAIXINGSHI,CONGFALVDEJIAODULAISHUOHUILUZHUYAOBAOKUOGEZHONGXINGSHIDEXINGHUIZUIHESHOUHUIZUI,BUZHENGDANGDEZHANYOUZHUYAOBAOKUOTANWUZUIHENUOYONGGONGKUANZUIDENG。HUILUDAIBIAOLEYIZHONG“JIAOYIXINGFUBAI”,BUZHENGDANGDEZHANYOUDAIBIAOLEYIZHONG“ZITIFUBAI”。

幸运飞艇app   ZHEILIANGZHONGFUBAIYIZHISHIZHONGGUOFUBAIDEZHUYAOLEIXING,LVXIAOBO (Lu,2000: 237)RENWEI:“ZITIFUBAI(Auto-Corruption)SHIQIANGAIGESHIQIDEZHUYAOTEZHENG,ZHEIZHONGFUBAIJINGCHANGFASHENGZAIFEISHICHANGLINGYUNEI,YINWEIZHEIXIELINGYUNEIHENSHAOYOUSHICHANGJIAOYI。ZAIFEISHICHANGLINGYUNEI,YOUXIGUIZESHI‘QUANLIZHUIZHUJINQIAN’,ERZAISHICHANGLINGYUNEIYOUXIGUIZESHI‘JINQIANZHUIZHUQUANLI’。YINCI,ZAIZITIFUBAIXINGDONGZHONG,DUIWUZHIHEJINQIANDEHUODEBUSHIYOUSHICHANGJUEDINGDE,ERSHIYOUQUANLIHEDIWEIJUEDINGDE。”SHIJISHANGXUDUOFUBAIYANJIUDEXUEZHEDOUCENGJINGANZHAOLEISIDEFANGFADUIFUBAIJINXINGFENLEI。BIRU:SUNYAN(Sun,2004)JIANGDANGDAIZHONGGUODEFUBAIFENWEI“JIAOYIXINGFUBAI”HE“FEIJIAOYIXINGFUBAI”,WEIDEAN(Andrew Wedeman,2014)JIANGFUBAIFENWEI“LVEDUOXINGFUBAI”HE“JIAOYIXINGFUBAI”,ZHANGLU(2013)FENWEI“QUANQIANJIAOYIXINGFUBAI”HE“LOUDONGLIYONGXINGFUBAI”。

  ZHISUOYIYAODUIFUBAIZUOZHEIZHONGLEIXINGXUEDEHUAFEN,SHIYINWEIZHEILIANGZHONGLEIXINGDEFUBAIZAIBIAOXIANXINGSHIHECHANSHENGDEGENYUANSHANGYOUZHEGENBENXINGDEBUTONG,YINCIZHILIZHEILIANGZHONGFUBAISUOCAIYONGDEDUICEYEYOUSUOCHABIE(LIHUI,2017)。JIAOYIXINGFUBAIZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIGEZHONGXINGSHIDEHUILU,BAOKUOXINGHUI、SHOUHUI、DANWEIXINGHUI、DANWEISHOUHUI、DUIDANWEIXINGHUIDENGLEIXING。ZAIWOGUO《XINGFA》DISANBAIBASHIWUTIAOZHONG,SHOUHUIZUIBEIDINGYIWEI:“GUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANLIYONGZHIWUSHANGDEBIANLI,SUOQUTARENCAIWUDE,HUOZHEFEIFASHOUSHOUTARENCAIWU,WEITARENMOUQULIYIDE,SHISHOUHUIZUI。”

幸运飞艇app   ZITIFUBAIZHUYAOSHIGONGZHIRENYUANDANFANGMIANDEXINGDONG,SHIGONGZHIRENYUANLIYONGSHOUZHONGDEQUANLIZHIJIEQIEQUHUOZHEZHANYOUGONGGONGCAICHAN,QISHOUDUANZHUYAOBAOKUOTANWUHENUOYONGGONGKUAN。ZAIWOGUO《XINGFA》DISANBAIBASHIERTIAOZHONG,TANWUZHIDESHI:“GUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANLIYONGZHIWUSHANGDEBIANLI,QINTUN、QIEQU、PIANQUHUOZHEYIQITASHOUDUANFEIFAZHANYOUGONGGONGCAIWUDE,SHITANWUZUI。SHOUGUOJIAJIGUAN、GUOYOUGONGSI、QIYE、SHIYEDANWEI、RENMINTUANTIWEITUOGUANLI、JINGYINGGUOYOUCAICHANDERENYUAN,LIYONGZHIWUSHANGDEBIANLI,QINTUN、QIEQU、PIANQUHUOZHEYIQITASHOUDUANFEIFAZHANYOUGONGGONGCAIWUDE,YITANWULUN。”ZAI《XINGFA》DISANBAIBASHISITIAODUINUOYONGGONGKUANDEDINGYISHI:“GUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANLIYONGZHIWUSHANGDEBIANLI,NUOYONGGONGKUANGUIGERENSHIYONG,JINXINGFEIFAHUODONGDE,HUOZHENUOYONGGONGKUANSHUEJIAODA、JINXINGYINGLIHUODONGDE,HUOZHENUOYONGGONGKUANSHUEJIAODA、CHAOGUOSANGEYUEWEIHAIDE,SHINUOYONGGONGKUANZUI。”

  ZHEILIANGZHONGFUBAIZUIHEXINDEQUBIEZAIXINGDONGZHUTIDEXINGZHISHANG,JIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEXINGDONGZHUTISHEJIDAOJIAOYIDESHUANGFANG,ZAIFALVDEBIAOSHUZHONGJIUSHI“GUOJIAGONGZUORENYUAN”HE“TAREN”,YESHIWOMENJINGCHANGSUOSHUODEXINGHUIZHEHESHOUHUIZHE,SUOYIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEFASHENGQUJUEYUXINGHUIZHEHESHOUHUIZHELIANGFANGMIANDEDONGJIHEJIHUI。ERZITIFUBAIZUOWEIYIZHONG“GUOJIAGONGZUORENYUAN”DANFANGMIANDEXINGDONG,QIGENYUANZHUYAOZAIGUOJIAHEZHENGFUBUMENSHENSHANG。YINCI,RUGUOWOMENBASHICHANGHUAKANZUOYIZHONGYINGXIANGFUBAIXINGWEIZHUTIDEWAIZAIZHIDUHUANJINGDEHUA,TADUIYULIANGZHONGFUBAIDEFASHENGSUOCHANSHENGDEZUOYONGKENENGSHIBUTONGDE。

  SAN、SHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIJIEGOUDEDIQUCHAYI:LILUNJIANGOUYUHEXINJIASHE

幸运飞艇app   JIEZHESHANGYIBUFENDELUNSHU,GUANYUSHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIDEGUANXI,YIJINGYOUFEICHANGDUODEYANJIULE。CONGZHULIUWENXIANLAIKAN,YOUQISHISHIYONGKUAGUOSHUJUDEDINGLIANGFENXI,JIBENDEFAXIANSHISHICHANGHUAHUOZHESHUOJINGJIZIYOUHUAHUIJIANGDIFUBAI(Montinola & Jackman,2002;Goel & Nelson,2005)。DANSHICONGSHICHANGZHUANXINGGUOJIADELISHIJINGYANLAIKAN,SHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIZHIJIANDEGUANXIBIANDEGENGWEIFUZALE。XUDUOJIYUDONGOUJINGJIZHUANXINGDEYANJIUDOUFAXIAN,SHICHANGHUABUJINMEIYOUEZHIFUBAI,FANERGENGJIACUJINLEFUBAIDEMANYAN(Iwasaki & Suzuki,2012;Kostadinova,2012)。

  JUTIDAOZHONGGUODEJINGYANSHANG,XUEZHEMENYESHIGEZHIYICI。YOUXIEXUEZHECHIBIJIAOLEGUANDETAIDU,BIRUSUNGANGDENG(2005:5)ZERENWEI,JIAQIANGSHICHANGJIANSHEKEYISHI“FUBAIHUODONGDEZIYUANPEIZHIGONGNENGYUELAIYUEBUZHONGYAO”,CONGERJIANGDIFUBAI。NIZHIWEIHEOUSUOFEI(2016)YERENWEISUIZHESHICHANGZHUANXINGDESHENRU,ZHENGZHIZIBENDUISHICHANGDEYINGXIANGLIHUIYUELAIYUEXIAO,XUNZUNENGLIYEHUISHOUDAOXIANZHI‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍。

  DANGENGDUODEXUEZHEHAISHIJIANCHIRENWEISHICHANGHUATIGONGLEXINDEFUBAILAIYUAN。WEIDEAN(2014:115)RENWEIDANGDAIZHONGGUODEFUBAISUIRANZAIGAIGEZHIQIANJIUCUNZAI,DANGUIMOXIAOQIEXIANGDUIFENSAN,“GAOJIBIEFUBAISHIZAIGAIGEQIDONGZHIHOUCAIKAISHIEHUADE”。MAGUOQUANJIANGZHEIZHONGFUBAIXINGWEICHENGWEI“GAIGEFUBAI”(Reform Corruption),TARENWEIZHENGFUZAISHICHANGHUAGAIGEZHONGFENPEIZIYUANHEZHANGKONGSHICHANGDENENGLISHIJISHANGBIANQIANGLE,DALIANGDEZHENGFUGONGZHIRENYUANBUSHITOUSHENDAOWEIJINGJIHUODONGTIGONGFUWUZHONGQU,ERSHIJINKENENGDIZHIJIECANYUJINGJIHUODONG,YICONGZHONGMOULI(Ma,1989)。LINGWAI,SHICHANGHUAGAIGEJIGUOJIADEGUANZHINENGLIDAILAILEXINDETIAOZHAN,ZAIJIANJINSHIDEGAIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,“MOZHESHITOUGUOHE”,SHICHANGGUANLIGEFANGMIANDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIYIGEMANZHANGDEGUOCHENG,ZHENGCEYUZHIDUDEZHIHOUZAOCHENGLEXUDUOJIEGOUHUADELOUDONG,WEIFUBAIFENZICONGSHICHANGZHONGMOULIDAKAILEFANGBIANZHIMEN(Sun,1999)。GUOYONG(2006: 58)DUICIYECHITONGYANGDEGUANDIAN:“YIFANGMIAN,YOUYUJINGJIZHUANGUI,CHUXIANLEXUDUOXINDEJINGJIZHUTI、XINGWEIHEXIANXIANG,CHAOCHULEYUANYOUZHIDUYUESHUDEFANWEI,ZHEIWEIBAOKUOFUBAIZAINEIDETOUJIXINGWEIDECHANSHENGTIGONGLEJIHUI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,YUXINDEJINGJITIZHIXIANGSHIYINGDEZHIDUTIXISHANGWEIJIANLI,WUFADUITOUJIXINGWEIJISHIYUESHU。”

幸运飞艇app   KEYIFAXIAN,ZHIQIANDEWENXIANZHUYAOSHIBIJIAOLONGTONGDITANTAOSHICHANGHUADUIZONGTIFUBAIDEZHUANGKUANGDEYINGXIANG,BINGMEIYOUDUIFUBAIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHIJIAYIFENLEI。QIZHONG,JIZHONGTANTAOZHONGGUOSHICHANGHUAJINCHENGYUFUBAIJIEGOUZHIJIANGUANXIDEWENXIANZHIYOUYIPIAN,JIUSHIGAOJIKUN(Kilkon Ko)HEWENGCUIFEN(Cuifen Weng)(Ko & Weng,2012)DE《ZHONGGUOFUBAIDEJIEGOUXINGBIANQIAN》(Structural Changes in Chinese Corruption),TAMENTONGGUODUI1998—2007NIANJIANZHIWUFANZUITONGJISHUJUDEFENXIFAXIAN,ZHONGGUOSUIZHESHICHANGHUAGAIGEDESHENRU,ZHONGGUOXINGHUI、SHOUHUIZHEIYILEIDEJIAOYIXINGFUBAIZHUJIANZENGDUO,DANSUIZHEXINGZHENGGUANLIZHIDUDEWANSHAN,TANWUHENUOYONGZHEIYILEIFUBAIANJIANZHUNIANJIANSHAO。TAMENDEYANJIUSUIRANTIDAOLESHICHANGHUADUIFUBAILEIXINGDEYINGXIANG,DANSHIYOUYUSHIYONGDESHIQUANGUOXINGDESHUJU,WUFATIXIANDIQUZHIJIANDECHAYI。LINGWAI,CONGSHIJIANSHANGLAIKANSHUJULVEXIANCHENJIU,DANGDESHIBADAYIHOUZHONGGUODEFANFUBAIFASHENGHENDAZHUANBIAN,SHICHANGHUAYUFUBAIZHIJIANDEGUANXIXUYAOZHONGXINPINGGU。ZUIHOU,TAMENDEYANJIUZHINENGZUOSHIJIANXULIEDEMIAOSHUFENXI,WUFAKONGZHIYINGXIANGFUBAILEIXINGDEQITAYINSU。

  WOMENCONGHONGGUANZHIDUHUANJINGYUWEIGUANGETIXINGWEIERZHEZHIJIANDEGUANXILAITANTAOSHICHANGHUAYUFUBAILEIXINGDELIANJIEJIZHI,SHICHANGHUAZUOWEIYIZHONGWAIZAIDEZHIDUHUANJING,QIDUIFUBAILEIXINGDEYINGXIANGKEYICONGZHENGFUZHUTIHESHICHANGZHUTIDEXUQIUHEGONGJILIANGGEFANGMIANLAIFENXI(Goel & Nelson,1998)。CONGXUQIUSHANGLAISHUO,WULUNSHISHICHANGHUACHENGDUGAOHAISHIDIDEDIQU,SHOUWOGONGGONGQUANLIDEGONGZHIRENYUANDOUYOULIYONGQUANLIMOUQUSILIDEXUQIU,RUGUOZHEIXIEDIQUZHIJIANFUBAIBEICHENGFADEFENGXIANSHILEISIDE,NEIMEANZHAOLIXINGXUANZELILUN,TAMENDEXUQIUYEYINGGAISHIDAZHIXIANGDANGDE(Becker,1968)。DANSHIQUBIEZAIYU,ZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQU,GONGQUANLIHUIBIJIAODUODIBEIPEIZHIZAIDUISHICHANGZHUTIDEJIANGUANSHANG。ERZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAODIDEDIQU,SHICHANGZHUTIBUFADA,GONGQUANLIHUIBIJIAOSHAODIBEIPEIZHIZAIYUSHICHANGJIANGUANYOUGUANDESHIXIANGSHANG。YINCI,GONGZHIRENYUANYIQUANMOUSIDEFUBAIXINGWEIZAILIANGGEDIQUJIUTIXIANWEIBUTONGDELEIXING,ZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQU,HUIGENGDUOBIAOXIANZAIZHENGFUYUSHICHANGZHUTIDEZIYUANJIAOHUANSHANG。

幸运飞艇app   CONGGONGJISHANGLAISHUOYESHITONGYANGDEYUANLI。KENENGZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAODIDEDIQU,TANGUANYEYOUCONGSHICHANGSHANGMOULIDEDONGJI,DANSHIYOUYUSHICHANGZHUTIBUFADA,ZHEIYANGDEJIHUIJIUBIJIAOSHAO。ERZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUJIAOGAODEDIQU,BUJINTANGUANYOUSHOUHUIDEDONGJI,SHICHANGZHUTIYEKENENGYOUQIANGLIEDEXINGHUIDONGJI,ZHEIYANGJIUWEITANGUANTIGONGLEDALIANGDEFUBAIJIHUI。YINCI,WOMENYOUCHONGFENDELIYOUTUIDUAN,SHICHANGHUADUIFUBAIDEZHENZHENGYINGXIANGFANGSHIBUSHISHULIANGDEDUOSHAO,ERSHIJIEGOUSHANGDECHAYI,JIZITIFUBAIYUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEFASHENGBILV。

幸运飞艇app   GENJUYISHANGDELILUNTUILI,WOMENTICHUBENWENDEHEXINJIASHE:

  JIASHE:SHICHANGHUACHENGDUHUIXIANZHUYINGXIANGDIQUZHIJIANZAIFUBAIJIEGOUSHANGDECHAYI,SHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQU,GUANYUANJUANRUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILVBIJIAOGAO,ERSHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAODIDEDIQU,GUANYUANJUANRUZITIFUBAIDEGAILVBIJIAOGAO。

  SI、SHUJUGONGZUO

  1.SHUJULAIYUAN

  WOMENDEYANJIUZILIAOLAIZIQUANGUOGEDIRENMINJIANCHAYUANXITONGDEGONGKAIQISUSHUWENBEN。WEILEHUODEZHEIGEZILIAO,KETIZULIYONGRYUYANZIBIANPACHONGCHENGXU,CONGZUIGAORENMINJIANCHAYUANANJIANXINXIGONGKAIWANGDE“FALVWENSHUGONGKAI”LANMUZHUAQUZI2015NIAN1YUE1RIYILAIDEQUANBUQISUSHUWENBEN,JIEZHI2017NIAN11YUE25RIGONGHUOQUGELEIGONGKAIQIEKEFANGWENDEQISUSHUWENBEN1 380 944FEN。[RENMINJIANCHAYUANANJIANXINXIGONGKAIWANGSHANGDEHENDUOQISUSHULIANJIECONGGONGKAISHIKEQIJISHIXIAO,WUFAHUOQUWENBEN。]YIZHEI138WANDUOFENQISUSHUWEIYUANSHIZILIAO,WOMENSHOUXIANSHANCHULEQIZHONGDE“JUEDINGBUQISUSHU”HEGEZHONGXIAZAICUOWUHEKONGBAIDEWENBEN,YINWEIZHEIXIEWENBENDENGYUFOUDINGLEZUIMINGDECUNZAI,FANGZAISHUJULIHUIWEIHOUMIANDESHUJUFENXIZAOCHENGGANRAO。LINGWAI,WOMENHAIDUISOUSUOJIEGUOJINXINGLEQUZHONG,YINWEIFAXIANQIZHONGYOUDALIANGZHONGFUSHANGCHUANDEWENJIAN,ZHEIYEHUIYINGXIANGHOUXUSHUJUFENXIDEJINGQUEDU。

幸运飞艇app   DIERBUSHIYAOCONGSHENGXIADEQISUSHUZHONGZHAOCHUYUFUBAIGAODUXIANGGUANDEQISUSHU。ZAIBENYANJIUZHONG,WOMENGENJUDESHI《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXINGFA》DIBAZHANGDUI“TANWUHUILUFANZUI”XIAGEZHONGZUIMINGTIAOMUDUIQISUSHUJINXINGJINYIBUSHAIXUAN。ZAI2016NIANZUIXINXIUDINGDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXINGFA》DIBAZHANGZHONGGUIDINGLESHISIGESHUYUTANWUHUILULEIDEZUIMING,BAOKUO:TANWUZUI、NUOYONGGONGKUANZUI、SHOUHUIZUI、DANWEISHOUHUIZUI、LIYONGYINGXIANGLISHOUHUIZUI、XINGHUIZUI、DUIYOUYINGXIANGLIDERENXINGHUIZUI、DUIDANWEIXINGHUIZUI、JIESHAOHUILUZUI、DANWEIXINGHUIZUI、JUECAICHANLAIYUANBUMINGZUI、YINMANJINGWAICUNKUANZUI、SIFENGUOYOUZICHANZUI、SIFENFAMEICAIWUZUI(FALVCHUBANSHEFAGUIZHONGXIN,2016)。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,WOMENHAIZENGJIALEFEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANSHOUHUIZUI、FEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUI、DUIFEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUISANGEZUIMING。

幸运飞艇app   YOUYUMEIYIFENQISUSHUDEBIAOTIZHONGDOUYIJINGBAOHANLEBEIQISUDEZUIMING,YINCIWOMENSHIYONGYISHANGZUIMINGZUOWEIGUANJIANCI,LIYONGRRUANJIANZHONGDEWENBENPIPEIGONGJUBAODUIQISUSHUZUOCHUBUSHAIXUAN,ZAIDUISHAIXUANJIEGUOJINXINGRENGONGQUEREN,ZUIZHONGDINGWEIDAOWOMENSUOXUYAODEYANJIUZILIAO。BENYANJIUGONGJISHAIXUANCHUQISUSHUWENBEN28 892FEN,RUBEIGAORENTONGSHIBEISUDUOXIANGZUIMING,ZESHIWEIFASHENGDUOQIANJIAN,QUCHUWUXIAOXINXI,GONGTONGJIDECHUQUANGUOGONGKAIDEZHIWUFANZUIBEIQISURENXINXIJILU27 691TIAO。CONGSHIJIANFENPEISHANGLAIKANBAOKUOLE2015NIANDE13 938TIAOHE2016NIAN13 753TIAO。[QISHIWOMENDESHUJUKULIHAIBAOHANLEBUFEN2017NIANDEZILIAO,DANSHISHULIANGBIJIAOSHAO。WOMENCAICEZHUYAOYUANYINSHISHIZHUAQUDESHIJIANBIJIAODUAN,LINGWAIGEDICONG2017NIAN10YUEFENKAISHIDOUZAIJIJIZHUNBEIJIANCHAWEIYUANHUIGAIGE,YAOJIANGJIANCHAYUANFANTANJUDEGONGZUORENYUANZHUANLIDAOXINCHENGLIDEJIANCHAWEI,SUOYIYOUYIXIEANJIANZAIBANJIESHIJIANSHANGSHOUDAOLEYINGXIANG,2018NIANZAIZUIGAORENMINJIANCHAYUANWANGZHANSHANGHAIZAICHIXUGONGBU2017NIANDEANJIANXINXI。WEILEJINLIANGJIANSHAOXUANZEXINGPIANCHADUIJIEGUODAILAIDEYINGXIANG,ZUIHOUMEIYOULIYONG2017NIANDEZILIAO。

  2.BIANLIANGDEBIANMAYUCELIANG

  (1)YINBIANLIANG:FUBAILEIXING

幸运飞艇app   GENJUQIANMIANDUIZITIFUBAIHEJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEHUAFEN,WOMENBAYISHANGZUIMINGANZHAOXIAMIANDEYUANZEQUFENWEILIANGLEI。QIZHONG,JIAOYIXINGFUBAIBAOKUO:SHOUHUIZUI、DANWEISHOUHUIZUI、LIYONGYINGXIANGLISHOUHUIZUI、XINGHUIZUI、DUIYOUYINGXIANGLIDERENXINGHUIZUI、DUIDANWEIXINGHUIZUI、JIESHAOHUILUZUI、DANWEIXINGHUIZUI、FEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANSHOUHUIZUI、FEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUI、DUIFEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUI,BIANMAWEI1。ZITIFUBAIBAOKUO:TANWUZUI、NUOYONGGONGKUANZUI、SIFENGUOYOUZICHANZUI、SIFENFAMEICAIWUZUI,BIANMAWEI0。TU1ZHONGCHENGXIANLEGEXIANGZUIMINGZAI2015HE2016NIANDEPINCIFENBUQINGKUANG:CONGZUIMINGDEJIEGOULAIKAN,2015NIANHE2016NIANTANWUHUILULEIZHIWUFANZUIDEZONGTIGOUCHENGSHIBIJIAOWENDINGDE,TANWUHESHOUHUIDOUSHIZUIGAOFADEFUBAILEIXING,QIZHONG2015NIANSHOUHUIZUILVEDUOYUTANWUZUI,ER2016NIANTANWUZUILVEDUOYUSHOUHUIZUI。QISHIWOMENDESHUJUZHONGYEBAOHANLESHAOLIANGDE2014NIANHE2017NIANDESHUJU,DANSHIYOUYUSHUJULIANGHENSHAO,WEILEJIANGDIXUANZEXINGPIANCHA,MEIYOUBAZHEILIANGGENIANFENDESHUJUNARUFENXIFANWEI。

  CONGFANZUIZHUTIDEXINGZHILAIKAN,DADUOSHUDOUSHIJIANGGERENZUOWEIFANZUIZHUTI,YINWEIXIANG“DANWEIXINGHUIZUI”“DANWEISHOUHUIZUI”HE“DUIDANWEIXINGHUIZUI”ZHEIYANGJIANGZUZHIZUOWEIFANZUIZHUTIDEZUIMINGFEICHANGSHAO,QIZHONGDANWEIXINGHUIZUIZUIDUO,YOU946LI,DANWEISHOUHUIZUIHEDUIDANWEIXINGHUIZUIFENBIEZHIYOU185LIHE79LI。LINGWAI,DADUOSHUDEFANZUIZHUTIDOUSHIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUAN,“FEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANSHOUHUIZUI”“FEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUI”HE“DUIFEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUIZUI”SANGEZUIMINGCHUXIANDEPINCIYEHENDI,FENBIEZHIYOU790LI、129LIHE84LI。

幸运飞艇app   (2)HEXINZIBIANLIANG:SHICHANGHUACHENGDU

幸运飞艇app   YOUYUBENWENZHEZHONGTANTAOSHICHANGHUACHENGDUDUIFUBAILEIXINGDEYINGXIANG,YINCIYAOXUNZHAOYIGEXIANGDUIQUANWEIHEBEIGUANGWEIJIESHOUDEDUI“SHICHANGHUA”DECELIANGZHIBIAO。JIANYUCI,WOMENSHIYONGLEFANGANGHEWANGXIAOLUDE“ZHONGGUOSHICHANGHUAZHISHU”SHUJU,ZHEIGESHUJUCONG2000NIANZHIJINMEINIANFABUYICI,SHIMUQIANKEYIZHAODAODEYONGLAICELIANGZHONGGUOBUTONGSHENGJIQUYUSHICHANGHUACHENGDUCHAYIDEZUIQUANWEISHUJU。ZHEIGEZHISHUDUIZHONGGUOGESHENGJIXINGZHENGQUDESHICHANGHUACHENGDUJINXINGDAFEN,“SHICHANGHUAZHISHUZONGTIPINGFENSHIYOU23XIANGJICHUZHIBIAOZUCHENGDE。TAMENGEZIFANYINGBUTONGLINGYUDESHICHANGHUACHENGDU”(FANGANG、WANGXIAOLU,2004: 3)。ZHEI23XIANGZHIBIAOFANYINGLEBUTONGDIQUZAIWUGEFANGMIANDESHICHANGHUACHENGDU:ZHENGFUYUSHICHANGDEGUANXI,FEIGUOYOUJINGJIDEFAZHAN,CHANPINSHICHANGDEFAYUCHENGDU,YAOSUSHICHANGDEFAYUCHENGDU,YIJISHICHANGZHONGJIEZUZHIDEFAYUHEFALVZHIDUHUANJING。PINGFENZAI0-10ZHIJIANQUZHI,FENSHUYUEGAODAIBIAOSHICHANGHUACHENGDUYUEGAO。RUTU2SUOSHI,ZAIZHONGGUO,DONGBUYANHAIDIQUDESHICHANGHUACHENGDUYAOGAOYUZHONGGUOQITADIQU,GENJUWANGXIAOLUHEFANGANGSUOZUODE“SHICHANGHUAZHISHU”,2014NIANZHEJIANGDESHICHANGHUAZHISHUWEI9.78,ERDONGBEIDEHEILONGJIANGZHIYOU6.22,XIBUDEGUIZHOUZHIYOU4.85(WANGXIAOLUDENG,2016)。TONGGUOBASHENGJIDANWEIDEBIANLIANGHEYIQISUSHUBENWENWEIJICHUDEGETICENGMIANDEBIANLIANGXIANGJIEHE,WOMENGOUJIANLEYIGEBAOHAN“SHENGJI-GETI”LIANGGECENGCIBIANLIANGDEQUANXINSHUJUKU‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍。

  (3)KONGZHIBIANLIANG

  CHULEHEXINZIBIANLIANGWAI,WOMENHAIKONGZHILEGETICENGCIDERENKOUXUEBIANLIANG。SHOUXIANSHIXINGBIE,XUDUOYANJIUDOUZHICHU,XINGBIEDUIYUFUBAIYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG(Barnes & Beaulieu,2014),KUAGUOFENXIFAXIAN,YIHUIZHONGNVXINGYIYUANBILIYUEGAO,ZHENGGEGUOJIADEFUBAICHENGDUYUEDI(Treisman,2007)。YIWANGDEYANJIURENWEIZHUYAOYUANYINSHINVXINGGUANYUANYIBANYONGYOUGENGGAODEDAODESHUIPING,GENGJIACHENGXIN,YINCIYEGENGSHAOSHEJIFUBAIWENTI。ZAIWOMENDESHUJUZHONG,ZHIYOU2 883GENVXING,ERNANXINGYOU24 759GE,FENBIEZHANDAOZONGYANGBENDE10.43%HE89.57%。CHULEBILISHANGDEJUDACHAJUWAI,WOMENHAIFAXIANNVXINGHENANXINGSUOSHEJIDEFUBAILEIXINGYEYOUXIANZHUCHAYI。ZAI2 883GENVXINGZHONG,SHEJIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEZHIYOU1 135GE,ERSHEJIZITIFUBAIDEYOU1 748GE。YINCI,WOMENCAICE,KENENGBINGBUSHIYINWEINVXINGBINANXINGYAOYOUGENGGAODEDAODESHUIPING,ERSHIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIYIBANBANSUIZHEHUAYANGFANDUODESHEJIAOHEYULEHUODONG,NANXINGGUANYUANYAOBINVXINGGUANYUANGENGJIARONGYICANYUZHEIXIEHUODONG。FENXIZHONG,WOMENJIANGNANXINGBIANMAWEI1,NVXINGBIANMAWEI0。

  FUBAILEIXINGKENENGZAICHENGSHIHENONGCUNZHIJIANYOUZHEJUDACHAYI。WOMENZAILINGWAIYIGEJIYUSIFAPANJUESHUSHUJUZUODEFENXIZHONGFAXIAN,NONGCUNJICENGZHENGQUANDEFUBAIDADUOSHUDOUSHITANWUAN(LIHUI,2017),QISUSHUDESHUJUZAICIZHENGMINGLEZHEIYIGUANDIAN。YINCI,WOMENZAIHOUMIANDEFENXIZHONGKONGZHILEGETIZAICHENGXIANGJUZHUSHANGDECHAYI,CHENGSHIBIANMAWEI1,NONGCUNBIANMAWEI0。

  CIWAI,WOMENHAIKONGZHILENIANLING。NIANLINGJIWEIBEIGAOZAIBEIQISUSHIDENIANLINGDAXIAO,WEILIANXUBIANLIANG。QISUSHUZHONGTIGONGDEJIAOYUCHENGDUFENLEIBIJIAOFUZADUOYANG,BAOKUOLEWENMANG、XIAOXUE、CHUZHONG、GAOZHONG、ZHIGAO、ZHONGZHUAN、JIXIAO、DAZHUAN、BENKE、YANJIUSHENGSHIGELEIBIE,WOMENJINYIBUBIANMAWEICHUDENGJIAOYU、ZHONGDENGJIAOYUHEGAODENGJIAOYUSANGELEIBIE。LINGWAI,QISUSHUHAITIGONGMINZUHEZHENGZHIMIANMAODENGXINXI,DANSHIYOUYUQUESHIZHITAIDUOMEIYOUNARUFENXIFANWEI。

幸运飞艇app   ZAISHENGJICENGMIAN,WOMENYEXUANQULEJIGEBIJIAOZHONGYAODEYINSUJINXINGKONGZHI。YOUYUWOMENDEHEXINZIBIANLIANG——SHICHANGHUAZHISHU——YIJINGBAOKUOLE23GEDIFANGZHIBIAO,YINCIWOMENZHINENGTIAOXUANZHEIXIEZHIBIAOZHONGMEIYOUSHEJIQIEKENENGYINGXIANGDAOFUBAIANZHIDEYINSU。XIANRAN,DIQUDEJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGKENENGHUIYINGXIANGDAOFUBAIANDELEIXING,YINCIWOMENSHOUXIANKONGZHILE2015NIANHE2016NIANGESHENGDERENJUNGDP。QICI,WOMENKONGZHILESHENGJIXINGZHENGQUDEZHENGFUGUIMO,YINWEIYIGEDIFANGDEZHENGFUGUIMOYUEDA,GONGZHIRENYUANLIYONGGONGGONGQUANLIMOUQUSILIDEJIHUIKENENGYEHUIYUEDUO。ZHENGFUGUIMOWOMENSHIYONGTONGXINGDEJISUANFANGFA,YONGDANGNIANDEZHENGFUCAIZHENGZHICHUCHUYIJINGJIZONGLIANG。CIWAI,GENJUGAOXINYANGLIANDELILUN,GONGZHIRENYUANDEGONGZISHUIPINGRUGUOBIJIAODI,KENENGHUIYOUGENGDADEDONGLICANYUFUBAI(Azfar & Nelson,2007),YINCIWOMENHAIKONGZHILESHENGJIXINGZHENGQUGONGZHIRENYUANDEPINGJUNGONGZI。

  WU、SHUJUFENXI

幸运飞艇app   1.FUBAILEIXINGDEDIQUCHAYI

  WEILEYANZHENGZAILILUNBUFENTICHUDEJIASHE,WOMENSHOUXIANXUYAOKAOLVDEWENTISHI,ZITIFUBAIHEJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEFENBUZAIZHONGGUOBUTONGDIQUZHIJIANZHENDEYOUJUDACHAYIMA?WEILECHUBUCHENGXIANSHICHANGHUAYUFUBAILEIXINGZHIJIANDEGUANXI,WOMENHUIZHILESHICHANGHUAHEFUBAILEIXINGDESANDIANTU。HENGZUOBIAOSHISHICHANGHUA,ZONGZUOBIAOSHIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEFASHENGBI(JIAOYIXINGFUBAICHUYIZITIFUBAIJIAJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEZONGLIANG),KEYIFAXIAN,SUIZHESHICHANGHUACHENGDUTIGAO,JIAOYIXINGFUBAIDUIZITIFUBAIDEFASHENGBIYUEGAO。

  2.DUOCENGCIHUIGUIFENXI

  ZAIDUOCENGCIHUIGUIFENXIZHONG,SHIYONGBIJIAODUODESHIFENCENGXIANXINGMOXING(Hierarchical Linear Models),DANYOUYUGETICENGCIDEYINBIANLIANGSHIYIGE(0,1)ERFENBIANLIANG,BUSHIYIGELIANXUBIANLIANG,YINCISHIYONGLEDUOCENGCIXIANXINGMOXINGBUZAISHIYONG。DANSHIKAOLVDAODUOCENGCIMOXINGKEYIBANGZHUWOMENSHIBIESHENGJICENGMIANDEZUJIANCHAYIDUIQIANRUZAIQIZHONGDEGETIPINGJUNZHUANGKUANGDEYINGXIANG,SUOYISHIYONGLEDUOCENGCILUOJISIDIHUIGUIFANGFALAINIHEMOXING。

  JUTIJIEGUOCHENGXIANZAIBIAO2ZHONG。WOMENYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFANIHELESIGEMOXING:MOXING1ZHONGZHIFANGLEHEXINZIBIANLIANG“SHICHANGHUACHENGDU”;MOXING2ZHONGJIARULEGETICENGMIANDEKONGZHIBIANLIANG,BAOKUOXINGBIE、NIANLING、JIAOYUCHENGDUHECHENGXIANGJUZHU;MOXING3ZHONGYOUJIARULESHENGJICENGMIANDEKONGZHIBIANLIANG,BAOKUOGESHENGDANGNIANDERENJUNGDP、ZHENGFUGUIMO、CHENGSHIHUASHUIPINGHEGONGGONGBUMENDERENJUNGONGZISHUIPING,QIZHONGRENJUNGDPHEGONGGONGBUMENRENJUNGONGZIWEIZHANGWEIBIANLIANG,YINCIFENBIEQULEDUISHU;MOXING4ZHONGWOMENTICHULENIANLINGZHEIGEBIANLIANG,YUANYINZAIYUZHEIGEBIANLIANGQUESHIZHIBIJIAODUO,WEILEJIANSHAOZAIHUIGUIZHONGZIDONGSHANCHULENIANLINGBIANLIANGDEQUESHIZHIERDAILAIDEXUANZEXINGPIANCHA,ZHONGXINNIHELEMOXING4。TONGSHISUOYOUMOXINGZHONGDOUKONGZHILENIANFENDEGUDINGXIAOYING。

  KEYIFAXIAN,WOMENZHONGDIANKAOCHADEHEXINZIBIANLIANG“SHICHANGHUACHENGDU”,BULUNMOXINGRUHEGAIBIAN,DOUCHENGXIANCHUFEICHANGWENDINGDEXIANZHUXING,QIEXISHUWEIZHENG。ZHEIBIAOMING,YIGEYONGYOUQUANLIDEGONGZHIRENYUAN,ZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEHUANJINGXIA,JUANRUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIDEGAILVYAOGAOYUQIJUANRUZITIFUBAIDEGAILV。DANSHIZAIMOXING4ZHONG,SHICHANGHUACHENGDUDEXISHUMINGXIANBIANXIAOLE,SHUOMINGNIANLINGBUFENDEQUESHIZHIDUIZUIZHONGDEHUIGUIJIEGUOYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG,BUGUOXISHUHAISHIZHENGDE,ERQIEZAIZUIGAOSHUIPINGSHANGXIANZHU。

  ZAI“SHICHANGHUAZHISHU”ZHONGFENLEWUGECENGMIANDEZHIBIAO:ZHENGFUYUSHICHANGDEGUANXI,FEIGUOYOUJINGJIDEFAZHAN,CHANPINSHICHANGDEFAYUCHENGDU,YAOSUSHICHANGDEFAYUCHENGDU,YIJISHICHANGZHONGJIEZUZHIDEFAYUHEFALVZHIDUHUANJING。QIZHONGBAOKUODENEIRONGTAIDUO,YINCIWOMENJIEXIALAIXIANGJINYIBUPINGGUGEGEFENZHIBIAOYUFUBAILEIXINGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。WEICIWOMENZHONGXINNIHELE10GEMOXING,JUTIJIEGUORUBIAO3SUOSHI。QIZHONGMOXING(1)、(3)、(5)、(7)、(9)ZAISHENGJICENGCIDANDUFANGLEWUGEFENZHIBIAO,ZHIKONGZHILEGETICENGCIDEJIBENBIANLIANG,JIEGUOFAXIANCHULE“CHANPINSHICHANGDEFAZHAN”ZHEIYIGEZHIBIAOBUXIANZHU,QIYUSIGEDOUSHIXIANZHUDEZHENGXIANGGUANGUANXI,ZHEIYUWOMENJIASHEBUFENDECAICESHIYIZHIDE。

  LINGWAI,ZAIMOXING(2)、(4)、(6)、(8)、(10)ZHONGWOMENJINYIBUKONGZHILESHENGJICENGCIDEQITABIANLIANG,JIEGUOFAXIANZHIYOUZHENGFUYUSHICHANGGUANXIZHEIYIGEZHIBIAOXIANZHULE,QIYUSIGESUIRANXISHUDEFANGXIANGYIRANWEIZHENG,DANSHIXIANZHUXINGXIAOSHILE。ZHEIJINYIBUSHUOMINGJIAOYIXINGFUBAIQUESHISHIZAIZHENGFUZHUTIYUSHICHANGZHUTIZHIJIANFASHENGDE,FUBAIBENZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGLIYONGGONGQUANLIMOUQUSILIDEHUODONG,SHIQUANLIYULIYIDEJIAOHUAN,DANCHUNSHICHANGFANGMIANYAOSUDEFAZHANSHIBUZUYICUCHENGFUBAIDE。

  LIU、JIELUNYUTAOLUN

  ZAISHICHANGZHUANXINGGUOJIA,SHICHANGHUADUIFUBAIDEYINGXIANGYIZHISHIYIGEBEIRELIETAOLUNDEHUATI,WEILEJINYIBUTUIJINZHEIYIWENTIDEYANJIU,BENWENTANTAOLESHICHANGHUADUIFUBAILEIXINGZAIDIQUJIANCHAYIDEYINGXIANG。SUIRANYANJIUFAXIANZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIBIZITIFUBAIFASHENGDEGAILVGENGGAO,ERZAISHICHANGHUACHENGDUDIDEDIQU,ZITIFUBAIBIJIAOYIXINGFUBAIFASHENGDEGAILVGENGGAO。DANYOUYUBENWENZHUYAOSHICAIYONGYIGEJIEMIANSHUJU,YONGLAIDUIZHONGGUOBUTONGDIQUZHIJIANFUBAILEIXINGJINXINGHENGXIANGBIJIAO,BUSHIYIGEZHANGSHIDUANDELISHIFENXI,GUBUNENGDEDAOJIELUNSHUOSUIZHESHICHANGHUACHENGDUJIASHEN,JIAOYIXINGFUBAIYUELAIYUEDUO,GENGBUNENGDECHUSHICHANGHUAGAIGEZENGJIALEZONGTIFUBAIDEJIELUN。

幸运飞艇app   DANGDESHIBADAYILAIZHONGYANGJIAQIANGFANFUBAIDOUZHENG,QUDELEJIJICHENGGUO。RENSHIZHONGGUOFUBAILEIXINGZAIDIQUJIANDECHAYI,DUIYUFUBAIWENTIDEZHILILAISHUOSHIFENZHONGYAO。YOUYUJIAOYIXINGFUBAIHEZITIFUBAIDEGENYUANCHAYIHENDA,YINCIBUTONGDEDIFANGXUYAOCONGSHIJIQINGKUANGZHIDINGYOUDIFANGTESEHECHAYIXINGDEFANFUBAIZHANLVE。DUIYUSHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAODIDEDIQU,YAOBAFANFUBAIDEZHUYAOJINGLIFANGZAIYUFANGZITIFUBAIDEFASHENGSHANG,YOUYUZHEIXIEFUBAIZHUYAOGENYUANYUJICHUXINGDEXINGZHENGGUANLIZHIDUBUJIANQUAN,ERQIEBIJIAODUODIFASHENGZAIGUOYOUQIYEHEXIANGCUNJICENGZHENGQUANZHONG,SUOYIFANFUBAIYAOZHUZHONGJIAQIANGJICHUXINGDEZHIDUJIANSHE,YOUQISHICAIWUFANGMIANDEGUANLIZHIDU。DANGDESHIBADAYILAI,ZHONGYANGCHUTAIYIXILIEZHENGCEYINGDUIJICENGZHENGQUANZHONGDETANWUWENTI,YOUQISHIZAI2018NIANXINCHUTAIDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIANCHAFA》ZHONG,MINGQUEJIANG“JICENGQUNZHONGXINGZIZHIZUZHIZHONGCONGSHIGUANLIDERENYUAN”LIERULIULEIGONGZHIRENYUANDEFANWEINEI。

幸运飞艇app   ERDUIYUSHICHANGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEDIQU,JIAOYIXINGFUBAIDUOFA,ZHONGYANGTICHUYAOGOUJIAN“QIN”HE“QING”DEXINXINGZHENGSHANGGUANXI。CONGZHONGGUODESHIJIQINGKUANGLAIKAN,WANQUANQIEDUANGUANSHANGJIAOWANGSHIBUKENENGDE,DANSHIYEYAOFANGZHIGUANSHANGJIAOWANGGUOYUMIQIEERZISHENGFUBAI。SUOYIZAIZHEIXIEDIQU,RUHECHULIHAOZHENGFUHEQIYEDEGUANXI,YINGZAOQINGLIANJIJIDEZHENGSHANGGUANXI,SHIWEILAIFANFUBAIDEZHONGDIANRENWU‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‍。